The mayan book of the dead the ceramic codex

the mayan book of the dead the ceramic codex

English: Maya god D, Itzamná. Daatum, Classic period. Quejn, Francis Robicsek: The Maya Book of the Dead. The Ceramic Codex, University of Virginia Art. English: The Maya rain deity. Datum, Classic period. Quelle, Francis Robicsek: The Maya Book of the Dead. The Ceramic Codex, University of Virginia Art. Finden Sie tolle Angebote für The Maya Book of the Dead: The Ceramic Codex by Donald Hale and Francis Robicsek (, Hardcover). Sicher kaufen bei.

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What are these sums spent on? Recently the remuneration for suicide bombers was tripled. Those who have carried out the worst attacks against innocent civilians receive the highest pay.

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center figures from show that Palestinians have conducted 25, terrorist attacks, suicide attacks leading to 1, dead Israelis and 7, wounded between and Fatah conducted acts of terrorism in alone, according to Terrorism Review.

Many more foreign hostages than originally reported were taken by the Al Qaeda terrorists at the Amenas gas plant in Algeria. The Algerian government says that out of were freed, and some sources say that 30 or more hostages were killed.

The British government offered the Algerians manpower, equipment, and expert assistance to expedite the resolution of the crisis, but was refused.

American, British, and French nationals are thought to be among the dead. In other news, the latest figures from Angola indicate that at least , Chinese nationals have migrated to the country.

The Angolan government says that work permits were issued for the Chinese to assist with development projects.

To see the headlines and the articles, open the full news post. Thanks to Andy Bostom, C. Commenters are advised to leave their comments at this post rather than with the news articles so that they are more easily accessible.

Gates of Vienna cannot vouch for the authenticity or accuracy of the contents of any individual item posted here.

We check each entry to make sure it is relatively interesting, not patently offensive, and at least superficially plausible.

Further research and verification are left to the reader. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.

Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from Unzensuriert. The number of pupils with a first language other than German has doubled from to The doubling in the number of multilingual students is evident in virtually all provinces in Austria.

The Styrian province is the only outlier, where the number of children with a different native language has tripled from about 5, to 16, The nationwide statistics conceals the dramatic developments in Vienna, because German is hardly spoken in the primary schools of the federal capital.

For a complete listing of previous enrichment news, see The Cultural Enrichment Archives. Scroll down for other posts that have appeared since Wednesday.

Certain posts at Gates of Vienna, among them those by Takuan Seiyo, tend to attract the attention and comments of people who are preoccupied with the Jews.

I generally delete such comments without publishing them. Before I deleted it, I sent it to Takuan, just to show him what was coming in.

He suggested that I go ahead and post it, followed by his response. Some interesting points, a lot of waffle and some errors. Top class, modern historians now regard that figure as grotesquely disproportionate.

It is one of the most successful internationsal businesses of all time. You have the temerity to post this kind of Nazi apologist garbage in a comments thread of an article by a writer whose gentile grandparents had been murdered in a concentration camp and whose gentile mother spent two years in a labor-extermination camp, was a state witness in the post-war trial of its commandant, and relayed her wartime experiences to this writer directly.

Moreover, a writer who was born and grew up one hour by car from Auschwitz and three kilometers from the plant where the firm Hoch und Tiefbau AG had built the crematoria for that camp.

In which, alone, 2. Moreover, you desecrate the memory of Witold Pilecki plus other Polish officer escapees from Auschwitz who produced written reports, e.

I am omitting here reports by Jewish escapees, for example the Vrba-Wetzler report, as well as the fate of the Jewish part of my family during the war, so as to skirt the whole specious Joooos-tainted-it aspect of your comment.

The lowest for Auschwitz, for instance by the Polish historian Franciszek Piper , cites 1. The highest figure cited for Auschwitz is 4 million.

However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one.

The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments.

For over 60 years, White mea-culpists have had a firm grip in all fields of cultural mind imprinting: Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e.

K and discretionary e. Nor the evils of the worldwide Islamic Inquisition which — not in the 16th century but now, in the 21st, condemns Muslim apostates to barbaric execution.

Instead, aggressive White androphobes of all genders which I can no longer count are decimating the philogynous and egalitarian West.

Chang Hua, Lang Huan Chi. Chatwin , Richard, The Anatomy of Restlessness. Chen Fong Ching and D. The Cosmic Serpent and John of the Bible.

Churchill, Winston, Quote on Democracy. Clark , Mary E. Codex , Dresden, Paris, Madrid. Cohen , Mitchell and Nicole Fermon, eds.

Colinvaux , Paul, The Fates of Nations: Coran, Koran, Qran, misuse , peace summary. Corsini , Raymond J.

Cowley , Robert, and Geoffrey Parker, Eds. Dartnell , Lewis, The Knowledge: De Grazia , Alfred, Chaos and Creation: De Landa , Relacion de la Cosas de Yucatan.

Del Vecchio , John M. Di Filippo , Paul, Ribofunk. Diderot , Denis, ed. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy , Trevor N.

Encyclopedia of Library Science. Translation by Edward Aveling, Fagan , Brian, Floods, Famines and Emperors: Falk , Richard A.

Fermon , Nicole and Mitchell Cohan, eds. Frank , Louis A. Buckminster, Critical Path , St. Gabriel , Professor Richard A. Gandhi, Mahatma, 7 sins quote , second repetition 7 sins quote.

See also Iyer , Raghavan citations. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Gazda , George M. Gellner , Ernest, Plough, Sword and Book: Gibson , James William, Warrior Dreams: Gill, Anton, An Honorable Defeat: Gimbutas , Marija A.

Gore, Al, The Future: Greene , Robert, The 48 Laws of Power. Hall , Manly P. Oral religion versus written accounting , Global Atlantis.

Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio, Multitude: The Riddles of History , Vintage Press, Have Gun, Will Travel, http: Hawken, Paul, The Magic of Findhorn: Hegel, Reason in History.

Heinlein, Robert, Starship Trooper , also the movie. Heller , Joseph, Catch Hesse , Herman, Siddhartha. Hinton , David, trans.

Hobbes , Thomas, Leviathan. Hoffer , Eric, The True Believer. Homer , The Iliad and The Odyssey. Howard, Ted and Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy.

Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World. Irvine , Charlott and William, Eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Fighting With Gandhi. Jung , Karl, Memories, Dreams and Reflections , Knoff, New York, Keyes , Ken, The Hundredth Monkey , at http: Klein , Naomi, The Shock Doctrine: Knowles , Elizabeth, Ed.

Koran, Qran, misuse , summary , The Light. Kress , Nancy, Beggars and Choosers. Krog , Antjie, Country of My Skull: Definition of a myth.

Kropotkin , Peter, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, ecological cooperation , http: A Space Odyssey , and other movies.

Le Guin , Ursula K. Lerner , Michael, The Politics of Meaning: Levin , Simon, Fragile Dominion: Lewin, Leonard, Report from Iron Mountain. Lyle , Martin, Trans.

Lynas , Mark, Six Degrees: Machiavelli , Niccolo, The Prince. Mailway , Mike, pseudonym for L. Upton Sinclair quote, taken from.

Residential units were built on top of stone platforms to raise them above the level of the rain season floodwaters. The Maya built their cities with Neolithic technology; [] they built their structures from both perishable materials and from stone.

The exact type of stone used in masonry construction varied according to locally available resources, and this also affected the building style.

Across a broad swathe of the Maya area, limestone was immediately available. The Maya did not employ a functional wheel, so all loads were transported on litters, barges, or rolled on logs.

Heavy loads were lifted with rope, but probably without employing pulleys. Wood was used for beams, and for lintels , even in masonry structures.

Adobe was also applied; this consisted of mud strengthened with straw and was applied as a coating over the woven-stick walls of huts.

Like wood and thatch, adobe was used throughout Maya history, even after the development of masonry structures. In the southern Maya area, adobe was employed in monumental architecture when no suitable stone was locally available.

The great cities of the Maya civilization were composed of pyramid temples, palaces, ballcourts, sacbeob causeways , patios and plazas.

Some cities also possessed extensive hydraulic systems or defensive walls. The exteriors of most buildings were painted, either in one or multiple colours, or with imagery.

Many buildings were adorned with sculpture or painted stucco reliefs. These complexes were usually located in the site core, beside a principal plaza.

Maya palaces consisted of a platform supporting a multiroom range structure. The term acropolis , in a Maya context, refers to a complex of structures built upon platforms of varying height.

Palaces and acropoleis were essentially elite residential compounds. They generally extended horizontally as opposed to the towering Maya pyramids, and often had restricted access.

Some structures in Maya acropoleis supported roof combs. Rooms often had stone benches, used for sleeping, and holes indicate where curtains once hung.

Large palaces, such as at Palenque, could be fitted with a water supply, and sweat baths were often found within the complex, or nearby.

During the Early Classic, rulers were sometimes buried underneath the acropolis complex. There is abundant evidence that palaces were far more than simple elite residences, and that a range of courtly activities took place in them, including audiences, formal receptions, and important rituals.

Temples were sometimes referred to in hieroglyphic texts as k'uh nah , meaning "god's house". Temples were raised on platforms, most often upon a pyramid.

The earliest temples were probably thatched huts built upon low platforms. By the Late Preclassic period, their walls were of stone, and the development of the corbel arch allowed stone roofs to replace thatch.

By the Classic period, temple roofs were being topped with roof combs that extended the height of the temple and served as a foundation for monumental art.

The temple shrines contained between one and three rooms, and were dedicated to important deities.

Such a deity might be one of the patron gods of the city, or a deified ancestor. The Maya were keen observers of the sun, stars, and planets.

The earliest examples date to the Preclassic period. A structure was built on the west side of a plaza; it was usually a radial pyramid with stairways facing the cardinal directions.

It faced east across the plaza to three small temples on the far side. From the west pyramid, the sun was seen to rise over these temples on the solstices and equinoxes.

As well as E-Groups, the Maya built other structures dedicated to observing the movements of celestial bodies. It has slit windows that marked the movements of Venus.

Triadic pyramids first appeared in the Preclassic. They consisted of a dominant structure flanked by two smaller inward-facing buildings, all mounted upon a single basal platform.

The ballcourt is a distinctive pan-Mesoamerican form of architecture. Although Maya cities shared many common features, there was considerable variation in architectural style.

In the Late Classic, these local differences developed into distinctive regional architectural styles. The style is characterized by tall pyramids supporting a summit shrine adorned with a roof comb, and accessed by a single doorway.

The exemplar of Puuc-style architecture is Uxmal. The motifs also included geometric patterns, lattices and spools, possibly influenced by styles from highland Oaxaca , outside the Maya area.

Roof combs were relatively uncommon at Puuc sites. Some doorways were surrounded by mosaic masks of monsters representing mountain or sky deities, identifying the doorways as entrances to the supernatural realm.

The Usumacinta style developed in the hilly terrain of the Usumacinta drainage. Cities took advantage of the hillsides to support their major architecture, as at Palenque and Yaxchilan.

Sites modified corbel vaulting to allow thinner walls and multiple access doors to temples. Palaces had multiple entrances that used post-and-lintel entrances rather than corbel vaulting.

Many sites erected stelae, but Palenque instead developed finely sculpted panelling to decorate its buildings. Before BC, the Maya spoke a single language, dubbed proto-Mayan by linguists.

The Maya writing system is one of the outstanding achievements of the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas.

Early Maya script had appeared on the Pacific coast of Guatemala by the late 1st century AD, or early 2nd century.

The Catholic Church and colonial officials, notably Bishop Diego de Landa , destroyed Maya texts wherever they found them, and with them the knowledge of Maya writing, but by chance three uncontested pre-Columbian books dated to the Postclassic period have been preserved.

Archaeology conducted at Maya sites often reveals other fragments, rectangular lumps of plaster and paint chips which were codices; these tantalizing remains are, however, too severely damaged for any inscriptions to have survived, most of the organic material having decayed.

Most surviving pre-Columbian Maya writing dates to the Classic period and is contained in stone inscriptions from Maya sites, such as stelae, or on ceramics vessels.

The Maya writing system often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian writing [] is a logosyllabic writing system, combining a syllabary of phonetic signs representing syllables with logogram representing entire words.

The Maya script was in use up to the arrival of the Europeans, its use peaking during the Classic Period. The knowledge was subsequently lost, as a result of the impact of the conquest on Maya society.

The decipherment and recovery of the knowledge of Maya writing has been a long and laborious process. The basic unit of Maya hieroglyphic text is the glyph block, which transcribes a word or phrase.

The block is composed of one or more individual glyphs attached to each other to form the glyph block, with individual glyph blocks generally being separated by a space.

Glyph blocks are usually arranged in a grid pattern. For ease of reference, epigraphers refer to glyph blocks from left to right alphabetically, and top to bottom numerically.

Thus, any glyph block in a piece of text can be identified. C4 would be third block counting from the left, and the fourth block counting downwards.

If a monument or artefact has more than one inscription, column labels are not repeated, rather they continue in the alphabetic series; if there are more than 26 columns, the labelling continues as A', B', etc.

Numeric row labels restart from 1 for each discrete unit of text. Although hieroglyphic text may be laid out in varying manners, generally text is arranged into double columns of glyph blocks.

The reading order of text starts at the top left block A1 , continues to the second block in the double-column B1 , then drops down a row and starts again from the left half of the double column A2 , and thus continues in zig-zag fashion.

Once the bottom is reached, the inscription continues from the top left of the next double column. Where an inscription ends in a single unpaired column, this final column is usually read straight downwards.

Individual glyph blocks may be composed of a number of elements. These consist of the main sign, and any affixes. Main signs represent the major element of the block, and may be a noun , verb , adverb , adjective , or phonetic sign.

Some main signs are abstract, some are pictures of the object they represent, and others are "head variants", personifications of the word they represent.

Affixes are smaller rectangular elements, usually attached to a main sign, although a block may be composed entirely of affixes.

Affixes may represent a wide variety of speech elements, including nouns, verbs, verbal suffixes, prepositions, pronouns, and more.

Small sections of a main sign could be used to represent the whole main sign, and Maya scribes were highly inventive in their usage and adaptation of glyph elements.

Although the archaeological record does not provide examples of brushes or pens, analysis of ink strokes on the Postclassic codices suggests that it was applied with a brush with a tip fashioned from pliable hair.

Commoners were illiterate; scribes were drawn from the elite. It is not known if all members of the aristocracy could read and write, although at least some women could, since there are representations of female scribes in Maya art.

Although not much is known about Maya scribes, some did sign their work, both on ceramics and on stone sculpture. Usually, only a single scribe signed a ceramic vessel, but multiple sculptors are known to have recorded their names on stone sculpture; eight sculptors signed one stela at Piedras Negras.

However, most works remained unsigned by their artists. In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya used a base 20 vigesimal system.

This later developed into a numeral that was used to perform calculation, [] and was used in hieroglyphic texts for more than a thousand years, until its use was extinguished by the Spanish.

The basic number system consists of a dot to represent one, and a bar to represent five. In this way, the lowest symbol would represent units, the next symbol up would represent multiples of twenty, and the symbol above that would represent multiples of , and so on.

For example, the number would be written with four dots on the lowest level, four dots on the next level up, and two dots on the next level after that, to give 4x1, plus 4x20, plus 2x Using this system, the Maya were able to record huge numbers.

The Maya calendrical system, in common with other Mesoamerican calendars, had its origins in the Preclassic period.

However, it was the Maya that developed the calendar to its maximum sophistication, recording lunar and solar cycles, eclipses and movements of planets with great accuracy.

In some cases, the Maya calculations were more accurate than equivalent calculations in the Old World ; for example, the Maya solar year was calculated to greater accuracy than the Julian year.

The Maya calendar was intrinsically tied to Maya ritual, and it was central to Maya religious practices. These were the day tzolk'in , [] the day haab' , [] and the year Calendar Round , resulting from the combination of the tzolk'in with the haab'.

The basic unit in the Maya calendar was one day, or k'in , and 20 k'in grouped to form a winal. The next unit, instead of being multiplied by 20, as called for by the vigesimal system, was multiplied by 18 in order to provide a rough approximation of the solar year hence producing days.

This day year was called a tun. Each succeeding level of multiplication followed the vigesimal system. The day tzolk'in provided the basic cycle of Maya ceremony, and the foundations of Maya prophecy.

No astronomical basis for this count has been proved, and it may be that the day count is based on the human gestation period. This is reinforced by the use of the tzolk'in to record dates of birth, and provide corresponding prophecy.

The day cycle repeated a series of day-names, with a number from 1 to 13 prefixed to indicated where in the cycle a particular day occurred.

The day haab was produced by a cycle of eighteen named day winal s, completed by the addition of a 5-day period called the wayeb.

Since each day in the tz'olkin had a name and number e. Such a day name could only recur once every 52 years, and this period is referred to by Mayanists as the Calendar Round.

In most Mesoamerican cultures, the Calendar Round was the largest unit for measuring time. As with any non-repeating calendar, the Maya measured time from a fixed start point.

The Maya set the beginning of their calendar as the end of a previous cycle of bak'tun s, equivalent to a day in BC. This was believed by the Maya to be the day of the creation of the world in its current form.

The Maya used the Long Count Calendar to fix any given day of the Calendar Round within their current great Piktun cycle consisting of either 20 bak'tun s.

A full long count date consisted of an introductory glyph followed by five glyphs counting off the number of bak'tun s, kat'un s, tun s, winal s, and k'in s since the start of the current creation.

This would be followed by the tz'olkin portion of the Calendar Round date, and after a number of intervening glyphs, the Long Count date would end with the Haab portion of the Calendar Round date.

Although the Calendar Round is still in use today, [] the Maya started using an abbreviated Short Count during the Late Classic period.

The Short Count is a count of 13 k'atuns. The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel [] contains the only colonial reference to classic long-count dates.

This equates the Long Count date The famous astrologer John Dee used an Aztec obsidian mirror to see into the future. We may look down our noses at his ideas, but one may be sure that in outlook he was far closer to a Maya priest astronomer than is an astronomer of our century.

The Maya made meticulous observations of celestial bodies, patiently recording astronomical data on the movements of the sun, moon, Venus, and the stars.

This information was used for divination , so Maya astronomy was essentially for astrological purposes. Maya astronomy did not serve to study the universe for scientific reasons, nor was it used to measure the seasons in order to calculate crop planting.

It was rather used by the priesthood to comprehend past cycles of time, and project them into the future to produce prophecy.

The priesthood refined observations and recorded eclipses of the sun and moon, and movements of Venus and the stars; these were measured against dated events in the past, on the assumption that similar events would occur in the future when the same astronomical conditions prevailed.

The Maya measured the day Venus cycle with an error of just two hours. Five cycles of Venus equated to eight day haab calendrical cycles, and this period was recorded in the codices.

The Maya also followed the movements of Jupiter , Mars and Mercury. Solar and lunar eclipses were considered to be especially dangerous events that could bring catastrophe upon the world.

In the Dresden Codex , a solar eclipse is represented by a serpent devouring the k'in "day" hieroglyph. Eclipses were interpreted as the sun or moon being bitten, and lunar tables were recorded in order that the Maya might be able to predict them, and perform the appropriate ceremonies to ward off disaster.

In common with the rest of Mesoamerica, the Maya believed in a supernatural realm inhabited by an array of powerful deities who needed to be placated with ceremonial offerings and ritual practices.

Visions for the chilan were likely facilitated by consumption of water lilies , which are hallucinogenic in high doses.

The Maya viewed the cosmos as highly structured. There were thirteen levels in the heavens and nine in the underworld, with the mortal world in between.

Each level had four cardinal directions associated with a different colour; north was white, east was red, south was yellow, and west was black.

Major deities had aspects associated with these directions and colours. Maya households interred their dead underneath the floors, with offerings appropriate to the social status of the family.

There the dead could act as protective ancestors. Maya lineages were patrilineal, so the worship of a prominent male ancestor would be emphasized, often with a household shrine.

As Maya society developed, and the elite became more powerful, Maya royalty developed their household shrines into the great pyramids that held the tombs of their ancestors.

Belief in supernatural forces pervaded Maya life and influenced every aspect of it, from the simplest day-to-day activities such as food preparation, to trade, politics, and elite activities.

Maya deities governed all aspects of the world, both visible and invisible. The priests performed public ceremonies that incorporated feasting, bloodletting, incense burning, music , ritual dance, and, on certain occasions, human sacrifice.

During the Classic period, the Maya ruler was the high priest, and the direct conduit between mortals and the gods.

It is highly likely that, among commoners, shamanism continued in parallel to state religion. By the Postclassic, religious emphasis had changed; there was an increase in worship of the images of deities, and more frequent recourse to human sacrifice.

Archaeologists painstakingly reconstruct these ritual practices and beliefs using several techniques.

One important, though incomplete, resource is physical evidence, such as dedicatory caches and other ritual deposits, shrines, and burials with their associated funerary offerings.

Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering.

By extension, the sacrifice of a human life was the ultimate offering of blood to the gods, and the most important Maya rituals culminated in human sacrifice.

Generally only high status prisoners of war were sacrificed, with lower status captives being used for labour.

Important rituals such as the dedication of major building projects or the enthronement of a new ruler required a human offering. The sacrifice of an enemy king was the most prized, and such a sacrifice involved decapitation of the captive ruler in a ritual reenactment of the decapitation of the Maya maize god by the death gods.

During the Postclassic period, the most common form of human sacrifice was heart extraction, influenced by the rites of the Aztecs in the Valley of Mexico; [] this usually took place in the courtyard of a temple, or upon the summit of the pyramid.

The Maya world was populated by a great variety of deities, supernatural entities and sacred forces. The Maya had such a broad interpretation of the sacred that identifying distinct deities with specific functions is inaccurate.

The priestly interpretation of astronomical records and books was therefore crucial, since the priest would understand which deity required ritual propitiation, when the correct ceremonies should be performed, and what would be an appropriate offering.

Each deity had four manifestations, associated with the cardinal directions, each identified with a different colour.

Itzamna was the creator god, but he also embodied the cosmos, and was simultaneously a sun god ; [] K'inich Ahau, the day sun, was one of his aspects.

Maya kings frequently identified themselves with K'inich Ahau. Itzamna also had a night sun aspect, the Night Jaguar , representing the sun in its journey through the underworld.

As well as their four main aspects, the Bakabs had dozens of other aspects that are not well understood. The Popol Vuh was written in the Latin script in early colonial times, and was probably transcribed from a hieroglyphic book by an unknown K'iche' Maya nobleman.

In common with other Mesoamerican cultures, the Maya worshipped feathered serpent deities. The ancient Maya had diverse and sophisticated methods of food production.

It was believed that shifting cultivation swidden agriculture provided most of their food, [] but it is now thought that permanent raised fields , terracing , intensive gardening, forest gardens, and managed fallows were also crucial to supporting the large populations of the Classic period in some areas.

The basic staples of the Maya diet were maize, beans, and squashes. These were supplemented with a wide variety of other plants either cultivated in gardens or gathered in the forest.

Cotton seeds were in the process of being ground, perhaps to produce cooking oil. In addition to basic foodstuffs, the Maya also cultivated prestige crops such as cotton, cacao and vanilla.

Cacao was especially prized by the elite, who consumed chocolate beverages. All of these were used as food animals; dogs were additionally used for hunting.

It is possible that deer were also penned and fattened. There are hundreds of Maya sites spread across five countries: Other important, but difficult to reach, sites include Calakmul and El Mirador.

There are a great many museums across the world with Maya artefacts in their collections. The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies lists over museums in its Maya Museum database, [] and the European Association of Mayanists lists just under 50 museums in Europe alone.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. El Castillo , at Chichen Itza. Detail of Lintel 26 from Yaxchilan. History of the Maya civilization.

Kaminaljuyu , in the highlands, and El Mirador , in the lowlands, were both important cities in the Late Preclassic. Women in Maya society.

Jaina Island figurine representing a Classic period warrior. Obsidian spearheads with a lithic core , Takalik Abaj. Trade in Maya civilization. It celebrates a military victory by Yik'in Chan K'awiil in Jade funerary mask of king K'inich Janaab' Pakal [].

Early Classic wooden figurine, it may once have supported a mirror []. Stucco mask adorning the Early Classic substructure of Tikal Temple 33 [].

Late Classic painted mural at Bonampak. Painted ceramic vessel from Sacul. Ceramic figurine from Jaina Island , AD — Postclassic ballcourt at Zaculeu , in the Guatemalan Highlands.

The Great Ballcourt of Chichen Itza. Coe, The Maya , London: Thames and Hudson, 6th ed. The Maya word B'alam " jaguar " written twice in the Maya script.

The first glyph writes the word logographicaly with the jaguar head standing for the entire word. Illustration of a Maya scribe on a Classic period vessel.

Kimbell Art Museum , Fort Worth. Maya numerals on a page of the Postclassic Dresden Codex.

Danube Valley civilization and Dispilio tablet is they were large and complex enough were probably forms of accounting for trade or logistics. Despite the progress, much has remained to be decoded from the immense body of carvings and inscriptions that has languished for centuries in jungle ruins and museum closets. It is essentially a painterly rather than sculptural tradition, and it is quite likely that even stone reliefs were first designed by painters. Console wii u gГ©ant casino Olmec reliefs, usually narrative and often depicting warriors brandishing clubs, have been located on the Pacific plain of Chiapas Im the fire starter and Guatemala. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A full long count date consisted of an introductory glyph followed by five glyphs counting off the number of bak'tun s, kat'un s, tun s, winal s, and k'in s since the start of the current creation. Replies to my comment. Gill, Anton, An Honorable Defeat: Below is a portion of a mass email I sent out earlier today to dozens of people sportwetten bonus 2019 had written to us to ask what happened: Inter-Regional Interaction and the Olmec. The Maya generally hammered sheet metal into objects such as beads, bells, and discs. BloomHoward, The Lucifer Principle: The Maya were keen observers of the sun, stars, and planets.

The mayan book of the dead the ceramic codex -

Version vom Vorschaubuidl Dimensiona Nutza Kommentar aktuell Diese Datei ist eventuell nicht gemeinfrei in den genannten Ländern, die darüber hinaus nicht den Schutzfristenvergleich anwenden. Download e-book for kindle: Im Moment gibt es mehrere 21 Casino Promotions zum Sammeln. Navigationsmenü Mei Weakzeig Ned ogmejd. Beschreibung Maya God Chaac. The king honored this request. Download e-book casino app bonus kindle: De Datei kimpt vo Wikimedia Commons. The Maya book of the dead: Es wurde festgestellt, dass diese Datei frei von bekannten Beschränkungen durch das Urheberrecht ist, alle verbundenen und verwandten Rechte eingeschlossen. Parallel zu dieser Lizenz muss auch ein Lizenzbaustein für die United States public domain gesetzt werden, um anzuzeigen, dass dieses Werk auch in den Vereinigten Staaten gemeinfrei ist. Digitaler Download, Sofortige Lieferung. The Maya Book of the Dead. Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. But because he was able to give the king a first-hand report about what was happening in America instead of just rumorsall was forgiven. Diese Uefa euro 2019 quali und die Informationen unter dem roten Trennstrich werden aus dem zentralen Beste Spielothek in Lengfeld finden Wikimedia Commons eingebunden. Lafayette insisted that more financial aid should be granted to the Americans. Weitere, baskeball Bücher, die diesem Buch sehr double ball sein könnten: The Maya Book of the Dead: By using the comment function on degruyter. See all formats and pricing. OG befindet sich in dem Appartementhaus einer Eigentümergemeinschaft in bester, ruhiger Lage am südlichen Ortsrand. Volume 15 Issue 1 Mar , pp. Parallel zu dieser Lizenz muss auch ein Lizenzbaustein für die United States public domain gesetzt werden, um anzuzeigen, dass dieses Werk auch in den Vereinigten Staaten gemeinfrei ist. Beachte bitte auch, dass einige wenige Länder eine Schutzfrist von mehr als 70 Jahren haben: The Maya Book of the Dead. This exciting How to Train Your Dragon game is perfect for kids between the ages of 8 and 12!. The Maya Book of the Dead: In spite of all the objections, the traditions of a great empire and of the city of Tula are so persistent that they must refer to Beste Spielothek in Kirchrüsselbach finden historical event and, indeed, have some archaeological support. The Spanish conquest stripped away Beste Spielothek in Ahrenshöft finden of the defining features of Maya civilization. In the Dresden Codexa solar eclipse is represented by a serpent devouring the k'in "day" hieroglyph. McCluanMarshall, Understanding Media. The Mysterious Midas City: Authorities are divided as to whether it was the capital of a great political empire. In the Classic period, such trophy heads no longer appeared on the king's belt, but Classic period kings are frequently depicted standing over humiliated war captives. Equally, a broken clay whistle casino royal witten not be considered an irreplaceable loss, so the "toy hypothesis" has merit. As playing cards, we can confidently map the Tarot to the early fc bayern schach century. Particularly important were terracing, irrigation, and swamp reclamation. Among the foreign hostages were American, British, French, and Japanese nationals. The temples of the Cross, Foliated Cross, and Sun were all built on the same plan, the back room of each temple having a kind of sanctuary designed like the temple of which it was a part. Thankfully, decipherment has been advancing at a rapid rate and significant progress is being made. Lying athwart them is a volcanic cordillera stretching bundesliga gründungsmitglieder the Atlantic to the Pacific. The building of such a structure obviously required a protracted and organized effort under the command of the priests.

The Mayan Book Of The Dead The Ceramic Codex Video

Episode 1 - Three Mayan Vessels

Hobbes , Thomas, Leviathan. Hoffer , Eric, The True Believer. Homer , The Iliad and The Odyssey. Howard, Ted and Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy.

Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World. Irvine , Charlott and William, Eds. Juergensmeyer, Mark, Fighting With Gandhi. Jung , Karl, Memories, Dreams and Reflections , Knoff, New York, Keyes , Ken, The Hundredth Monkey , at http: Klein , Naomi, The Shock Doctrine: Knowles , Elizabeth, Ed.

Koran, Qran, misuse , summary , The Light. Kress , Nancy, Beggars and Choosers. Krog , Antjie, Country of My Skull: Definition of a myth. Kropotkin , Peter, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, ecological cooperation , http: A Space Odyssey , and other movies.

Le Guin , Ursula K. Lerner , Michael, The Politics of Meaning: Levin , Simon, Fragile Dominion: Lewin, Leonard, Report from Iron Mountain. Lyle , Martin, Trans.

Lynas , Mark, Six Degrees: Machiavelli , Niccolo, The Prince. Mailway , Mike, pseudonym for L. Upton Sinclair quote, taken from.

Mao Tse Tung, quotation. Marx, Karl, Communist Manifesto. Matossian, Mary Kilbourne, Poisons of the Past: McCluan , Marshall, Understanding Media.

McNamara , Robert S. Mendeleyev , Table of Elements. Menzies , Gavin, Meyer , Karl E. Mahdi , Badman Khan.

Michels , Robert, Political Parties , More , Sir Thomas, Utopia. Morgan , Elaine, The Aquatic Ape. Mosco, Vincent and Janet Wasko, Eds. Mumford , Lewis, The Story of Utopias.

Narby , Jeremy, The Cosmic Serpent: Nation, The , Boyle quotation. Negri, Antonio and Michael Hardt, Multitude: Neier , Aryeh, The Nation , May 3, , p.

Nietzsche , Friedrich, from http: Niu Hung , memorandum to the Sui Emperor, Circa How scientists, farmers, and foodies are healing the soil to save the planet , Rodale, Inc.

Oldenbourg , Zoe, various books on the Cathari. Orczy, Baroness, The Scarlet Pimpernel. Oppenheimer , Robert, quote. Orwell , George, pseudonym for Eric Blair Orwell , George, Animal Farm.

Owen , Robert, Catechism , Cole. Owen , Robert, New Lanark , Cole. Parker , Geoffrey, and Robert Cowley, Eds.

This PDF has no front page, is being hacked and may bear a virus or two — it is very unpopular in certain neocon circles, since it negates the value of interminable guerilla wars of corporate convenience.

Pinker , Peter, The Language Instinct. Plank , Max, quotation. Porter , Bruce D. Ponsonby, Arthur, Falsehood in War-Time. Ponting , Clive, Armageddon: Popol Vuh, Mayan text.

Pursuit of the Millennium. His Divine Grace A. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupäda, ed. An Unauthorized Edition , Henry M.

Quigley , Carrol, The Evolution of Civilizations: Qran, Koran, misuse , summary. Raine , Adrian, The Anatomy of Violence: Red Dawn - movie.

Restak , Richard M. Rifkin , Jeremy and Ted Howard, Entropy. Rifkin, Jeremy, The Age of Triage. Rifkin , Jeremy, The End of Labor.

Rosenstock-Huessy , Eugen, Out of Revolution: Warfare is depicted in Maya art from the Classic period, and wars and victories are mentioned in hieroglyphic inscriptions.

The elite inhabitants of the city either fled or were captured, and never returned to collect their abandoned property.

The inhabitants of the periphery abandoned the site soon after. This is an example of intensive warfare carried out by an enemy in order to completely eliminate a Maya state, rather than subjugate it.

Research at Aguateca indicated that Classic period warriors were primarily members of the elite. From as early as the Preclassic period, the ruler of a Maya polity was expected to be a distinguished war leader, and was depicted with trophy heads hanging from his belt.

In the Classic period, such trophy heads no longer appeared on the king's belt, but Classic period kings are frequently depicted standing over humiliated war captives.

Maya inscriptions from the Classic show that a defeated king could be captured, tortured, and sacrificed.

The outcome of a successful military campaign could vary in its impact on the defeated polity. In some cases, entire cities were sacked, and never resettled, as at Aguateca.

The captured nobles and their families could be imprisoned, or sacrificed. At the least severe end of the scale, the defeated polity would be obliged to pay tribute to the victor.

During the Contact period, it is known that certain military positions were held by members of the aristocracy, and were passed on by patrilineal succession.

It is likely that the specialized knowledge inherent in the particular military role was taught to the successor, including strategy, ritual, and war dances.

Maya states did not maintain standing armies; warriors were mustered by local officials who reported back to appointed warleaders.

There were also units of full-time mercenaries who followed permanent leaders. There is some evidence from the Classic period that women provided supporting roles in war, but they did not act as military officers with the exception of those rare ruling queens.

The atlatl spear-thrower was introduced to the Maya region by Teotihuacan in the Early Classic. Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish when they conquered the region.

Trade was a key component of Maya society, and in the development of the Maya civilization. The cities that grew to become the most important usually controlled access to vital trade goods, or portage routes.

Cities such as Kaminaljuyu and Q'umarkaj in the Guatemalan Highlands, and Chalchuapa in El Salvador, variously controlled access to the sources of obsidian at different points in Maya history.

The Maya engaged in long distance trade across the Maya region, and across greater Mesoamerica and beyond. As an illustration, an Early Classic Maya merchant quarter has been identified at the distant metropolis of Teotihuacan, in central Mexico.

Long distance trade of both luxury and utilitarian goods was probably controlled by the royal family.

Prestige goods obtained by trade were used both for consumption by the city's ruler, and as luxury gifts to consolidate the loyalty of vassals and allies.

Trade routes not only supplied physical goods, they facilitated the movement of people and ideas throughout Mesoamerica. Little is known of Maya merchants, although they are depicted on Maya ceramics in elaborate noble dress.

From this, it is known that at least some traders were members of the elite. During the Contact period, it is known that Maya nobility took part in long distance trading expeditions.

When merchants travelled, they painted themselves black, like their patron gods, and went heavily armed. The Maya had no pack animals, so all trade goods were carried on the backs of porters when going overland; if the trade route followed a river or the coast, then goods were transported in canoes.

It was made from a large hollowed-out tree trunk and had a palm-covered canopy. The canoe was 2. Trade goods carried included cacao, obsidian, ceramics, textiles, food and drink for the crew, and copper bells and axes.

Marketplaces are difficult to identify archaeologically. Unusually high levels of zinc and phosphorus at both sites indicated similar food production and vegetable sales activity.

The calculated density of market stalls at Chunchucmil strongly suggests that a thriving market economy already existed in the Early Classic.

Maya art is essentially the art of the royal court. It is almost exclusively concerned with the Maya elite and their world.

Maya art was crafted from both perishable and non-perishable materials, and served to link the Maya to their ancestors.

Although surviving Maya art represents only a small proportion of the art that the Maya created, it represents a wider variety of subjects than any other art tradition in the Americas.

The Maya exhibited a preference for the colour green or blue-green, and used the same word for the colours blue and green. Correspondingly, they placed high value on apple-green jade, and other greenstones , associating them with the sun-god K'inich Ajau.

They sculpted artefacts that included fine tesserae and beads, to carved heads weighing 4. Mosaic funerary masks could also be fashioned from jade, such as that of K'inich Janaab' Pakal , king of Palenque.

Maya stone sculpture emerged into the archaeological record as a fully developed tradition, suggesting that it may have evolved from a tradition of sculpting wood.

The few wooden artefacts that have survived include three-dimensional sculptures, and hieroglyphic panels. The rough form was laid out on a plain plaster base coating on the wall, and the three-dimensional form was built up using small stones.

Finally, this was coated with stucco and moulded into the finished form; human body forms were first modelled in stucco, with their costumes added afterwards.

The final stucco sculpture was then brightly painted. The Maya had a long tradition of mural painting; rich polychrome murals have been excavated at San Bartolo, dating to between and BC.

Among the best preserved murals are a full-size series of Late Classic paintings at Bonampak. Flint , chert , and obsidian all served utilitarian purposes in Maya culture, but many pieces were finely crafted into forms that were never intended to be used as tools.

Maya textiles are very poorly represented in the archaeological record, although by comparison with other pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Aztecs and the Andean region , it is likely that they were high-value items.

Such secondary representations show the elite of the Maya court adorned with sumptuous cloths, generally these would have been cotton, but jaguar pelts and deer hides are also shown.

Ceramics are the most commonly surviving type of Maya art. The Maya had no knowledge of the potter's wheel , and Maya vessels were built up by coiling rolled strips of clay into the desired form.

Maya pottery was not glazed, although it often had a fine finish produced by burnishing. Maya ceramics were painted with clay slips blended with minerals and coloured clays.

Ancient Maya firing techniques have yet to be replicated. They stand from 10 to 25 centimetres 3. It includes a set of features such as hieroglyphs painted in a pink or pale red colour and scenes with dancers wearing masks.

One of the most distinctive features is the realistic representation of subjects as they appeared in life. Bone, both human and animal, was also sculpted; human bones may have been trophies, or relics of ancestors.

The Maya generally hammered sheet metal into objects such as beads, bells, and discs. In the last centuries before the Spanish Conquest, the Maya began to use the lost-wax method to cast small metal pieces.

One poorly studied area of Maya folk art is graffiti. At Tikal, where a great quantity of graffiti has been recorded, the subject matter includes drawings of temples, people, deities, animals, banners, litters, and thrones.

Graffiti was often inscribed haphazardly, with drawings overlapping each other, and display a mix of crude, untrained art, and examples by artists who were familiar with Classic-period artistic conventions.

The Maya produced a vast array of structures, and have left an extensive architectural legacy. Maya architecture also incorporates various art forms and hieroglyphic texts.

Masonry architecture built by the Maya evidences craft specialization in Maya society, centralized organization and the political means to mobilize a large workforce.

A Classic-period city like Tikal was spread over 20 square kilometres 7. The labour required to build such a city was immense, running into many millions of man-days.

Maya cities were not formally planned, and were subject to irregular expansion, with the haphazard addition of palaces, temples and other buildings.

Sculpted monuments were raised to record the deeds of the ruling dynasty. City centres also featured plazas, sacred ballcourts and buildings used for marketplaces and schools.

The areas adjacent to these sacred compounds included residential complexes housing wealthy lineages. The largest and richest of these elite compounds sometimes possessed sculpture and art of craftsmanship equal to that of royal art.

The ceremonial centre of the Maya city was where the ruling elite lived, and where the administrative functions of the city were performed, together with religious ceremonies.

It was also where the inhabitants of the city gathered for public activities. Residential units were built on top of stone platforms to raise them above the level of the rain season floodwaters.

The Maya built their cities with Neolithic technology; [] they built their structures from both perishable materials and from stone.

The exact type of stone used in masonry construction varied according to locally available resources, and this also affected the building style.

Across a broad swathe of the Maya area, limestone was immediately available. The Maya did not employ a functional wheel, so all loads were transported on litters, barges, or rolled on logs.

Heavy loads were lifted with rope, but probably without employing pulleys. Wood was used for beams, and for lintels , even in masonry structures.

Adobe was also applied; this consisted of mud strengthened with straw and was applied as a coating over the woven-stick walls of huts. Like wood and thatch, adobe was used throughout Maya history, even after the development of masonry structures.

In the southern Maya area, adobe was employed in monumental architecture when no suitable stone was locally available.

The great cities of the Maya civilization were composed of pyramid temples, palaces, ballcourts, sacbeob causeways , patios and plazas. Some cities also possessed extensive hydraulic systems or defensive walls.

The exteriors of most buildings were painted, either in one or multiple colours, or with imagery. Many buildings were adorned with sculpture or painted stucco reliefs.

These complexes were usually located in the site core, beside a principal plaza. Maya palaces consisted of a platform supporting a multiroom range structure.

The term acropolis , in a Maya context, refers to a complex of structures built upon platforms of varying height. Palaces and acropoleis were essentially elite residential compounds.

They generally extended horizontally as opposed to the towering Maya pyramids, and often had restricted access.

Some structures in Maya acropoleis supported roof combs. Rooms often had stone benches, used for sleeping, and holes indicate where curtains once hung.

Large palaces, such as at Palenque, could be fitted with a water supply, and sweat baths were often found within the complex, or nearby.

During the Early Classic, rulers were sometimes buried underneath the acropolis complex. There is abundant evidence that palaces were far more than simple elite residences, and that a range of courtly activities took place in them, including audiences, formal receptions, and important rituals.

Temples were sometimes referred to in hieroglyphic texts as k'uh nah , meaning "god's house". Temples were raised on platforms, most often upon a pyramid.

The earliest temples were probably thatched huts built upon low platforms. By the Late Preclassic period, their walls were of stone, and the development of the corbel arch allowed stone roofs to replace thatch.

By the Classic period, temple roofs were being topped with roof combs that extended the height of the temple and served as a foundation for monumental art.

The temple shrines contained between one and three rooms, and were dedicated to important deities. Such a deity might be one of the patron gods of the city, or a deified ancestor.

The Maya were keen observers of the sun, stars, and planets. The earliest examples date to the Preclassic period. A structure was built on the west side of a plaza; it was usually a radial pyramid with stairways facing the cardinal directions.

It faced east across the plaza to three small temples on the far side. From the west pyramid, the sun was seen to rise over these temples on the solstices and equinoxes.

As well as E-Groups, the Maya built other structures dedicated to observing the movements of celestial bodies. It has slit windows that marked the movements of Venus.

Triadic pyramids first appeared in the Preclassic. They consisted of a dominant structure flanked by two smaller inward-facing buildings, all mounted upon a single basal platform.

The ballcourt is a distinctive pan-Mesoamerican form of architecture. Although Maya cities shared many common features, there was considerable variation in architectural style.

In the Late Classic, these local differences developed into distinctive regional architectural styles. The style is characterized by tall pyramids supporting a summit shrine adorned with a roof comb, and accessed by a single doorway.

The exemplar of Puuc-style architecture is Uxmal. The motifs also included geometric patterns, lattices and spools, possibly influenced by styles from highland Oaxaca , outside the Maya area.

Roof combs were relatively uncommon at Puuc sites. Some doorways were surrounded by mosaic masks of monsters representing mountain or sky deities, identifying the doorways as entrances to the supernatural realm.

The Usumacinta style developed in the hilly terrain of the Usumacinta drainage. Cities took advantage of the hillsides to support their major architecture, as at Palenque and Yaxchilan.

Sites modified corbel vaulting to allow thinner walls and multiple access doors to temples. Palaces had multiple entrances that used post-and-lintel entrances rather than corbel vaulting.

Many sites erected stelae, but Palenque instead developed finely sculpted panelling to decorate its buildings.

Before BC, the Maya spoke a single language, dubbed proto-Mayan by linguists. The Maya writing system is one of the outstanding achievements of the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas.

Early Maya script had appeared on the Pacific coast of Guatemala by the late 1st century AD, or early 2nd century. The Catholic Church and colonial officials, notably Bishop Diego de Landa , destroyed Maya texts wherever they found them, and with them the knowledge of Maya writing, but by chance three uncontested pre-Columbian books dated to the Postclassic period have been preserved.

Archaeology conducted at Maya sites often reveals other fragments, rectangular lumps of plaster and paint chips which were codices; these tantalizing remains are, however, too severely damaged for any inscriptions to have survived, most of the organic material having decayed.

Most surviving pre-Columbian Maya writing dates to the Classic period and is contained in stone inscriptions from Maya sites, such as stelae, or on ceramics vessels.

The Maya writing system often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian writing [] is a logosyllabic writing system, combining a syllabary of phonetic signs representing syllables with logogram representing entire words.

The Maya script was in use up to the arrival of the Europeans, its use peaking during the Classic Period. The knowledge was subsequently lost, as a result of the impact of the conquest on Maya society.

The decipherment and recovery of the knowledge of Maya writing has been a long and laborious process. The basic unit of Maya hieroglyphic text is the glyph block, which transcribes a word or phrase.

The block is composed of one or more individual glyphs attached to each other to form the glyph block, with individual glyph blocks generally being separated by a space.

Glyph blocks are usually arranged in a grid pattern. For ease of reference, epigraphers refer to glyph blocks from left to right alphabetically, and top to bottom numerically.

Thus, any glyph block in a piece of text can be identified. C4 would be third block counting from the left, and the fourth block counting downwards.

If a monument or artefact has more than one inscription, column labels are not repeated, rather they continue in the alphabetic series; if there are more than 26 columns, the labelling continues as A', B', etc.

Numeric row labels restart from 1 for each discrete unit of text. Although hieroglyphic text may be laid out in varying manners, generally text is arranged into double columns of glyph blocks.

The reading order of text starts at the top left block A1 , continues to the second block in the double-column B1 , then drops down a row and starts again from the left half of the double column A2 , and thus continues in zig-zag fashion.

Once the bottom is reached, the inscription continues from the top left of the next double column. Where an inscription ends in a single unpaired column, this final column is usually read straight downwards.

Individual glyph blocks may be composed of a number of elements. These consist of the main sign, and any affixes. Main signs represent the major element of the block, and may be a noun , verb , adverb , adjective , or phonetic sign.

Some main signs are abstract, some are pictures of the object they represent, and others are "head variants", personifications of the word they represent.

Affixes are smaller rectangular elements, usually attached to a main sign, although a block may be composed entirely of affixes.

Affixes may represent a wide variety of speech elements, including nouns, verbs, verbal suffixes, prepositions, pronouns, and more.

Small sections of a main sign could be used to represent the whole main sign, and Maya scribes were highly inventive in their usage and adaptation of glyph elements.

Although the archaeological record does not provide examples of brushes or pens, analysis of ink strokes on the Postclassic codices suggests that it was applied with a brush with a tip fashioned from pliable hair.

Commoners were illiterate; scribes were drawn from the elite. It is not known if all members of the aristocracy could read and write, although at least some women could, since there are representations of female scribes in Maya art.

Although not much is known about Maya scribes, some did sign their work, both on ceramics and on stone sculpture.

Usually, only a single scribe signed a ceramic vessel, but multiple sculptors are known to have recorded their names on stone sculpture; eight sculptors signed one stela at Piedras Negras.

However, most works remained unsigned by their artists. In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya used a base 20 vigesimal system.

This later developed into a numeral that was used to perform calculation, [] and was used in hieroglyphic texts for more than a thousand years, until its use was extinguished by the Spanish.

The basic number system consists of a dot to represent one, and a bar to represent five. In this way, the lowest symbol would represent units, the next symbol up would represent multiples of twenty, and the symbol above that would represent multiples of , and so on.

For example, the number would be written with four dots on the lowest level, four dots on the next level up, and two dots on the next level after that, to give 4x1, plus 4x20, plus 2x Using this system, the Maya were able to record huge numbers.

The Maya calendrical system, in common with other Mesoamerican calendars, had its origins in the Preclassic period. However, it was the Maya that developed the calendar to its maximum sophistication, recording lunar and solar cycles, eclipses and movements of planets with great accuracy.

In some cases, the Maya calculations were more accurate than equivalent calculations in the Old World ; for example, the Maya solar year was calculated to greater accuracy than the Julian year.

The Maya calendar was intrinsically tied to Maya ritual, and it was central to Maya religious practices. These were the day tzolk'in , [] the day haab' , [] and the year Calendar Round , resulting from the combination of the tzolk'in with the haab'.

The basic unit in the Maya calendar was one day, or k'in , and 20 k'in grouped to form a winal. The next unit, instead of being multiplied by 20, as called for by the vigesimal system, was multiplied by 18 in order to provide a rough approximation of the solar year hence producing days.

This day year was called a tun. Each succeeding level of multiplication followed the vigesimal system. The day tzolk'in provided the basic cycle of Maya ceremony, and the foundations of Maya prophecy.

No astronomical basis for this count has been proved, and it may be that the day count is based on the human gestation period.

This is reinforced by the use of the tzolk'in to record dates of birth, and provide corresponding prophecy. The day cycle repeated a series of day-names, with a number from 1 to 13 prefixed to indicated where in the cycle a particular day occurred.

The day haab was produced by a cycle of eighteen named day winal s, completed by the addition of a 5-day period called the wayeb.

Since each day in the tz'olkin had a name and number e. Such a day name could only recur once every 52 years, and this period is referred to by Mayanists as the Calendar Round.

In most Mesoamerican cultures, the Calendar Round was the largest unit for measuring time. As with any non-repeating calendar, the Maya measured time from a fixed start point.

The Maya set the beginning of their calendar as the end of a previous cycle of bak'tun s, equivalent to a day in BC. This was believed by the Maya to be the day of the creation of the world in its current form.

The Maya used the Long Count Calendar to fix any given day of the Calendar Round within their current great Piktun cycle consisting of either 20 bak'tun s.

A full long count date consisted of an introductory glyph followed by five glyphs counting off the number of bak'tun s, kat'un s, tun s, winal s, and k'in s since the start of the current creation.

This would be followed by the tz'olkin portion of the Calendar Round date, and after a number of intervening glyphs, the Long Count date would end with the Haab portion of the Calendar Round date.

Although the Calendar Round is still in use today, [] the Maya started using an abbreviated Short Count during the Late Classic period.

The Short Count is a count of 13 k'atuns. The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel [] contains the only colonial reference to classic long-count dates.

This equates the Long Count date The famous astrologer John Dee used an Aztec obsidian mirror to see into the future.

We may look down our noses at his ideas, but one may be sure that in outlook he was far closer to a Maya priest astronomer than is an astronomer of our century.

The Maya made meticulous observations of celestial bodies, patiently recording astronomical data on the movements of the sun, moon, Venus, and the stars.

Many more foreign hostages than originally reported were taken by the Al Qaeda terrorists at the Amenas gas plant in Algeria. The Algerian government says that out of were freed, and some sources say that 30 or more hostages were killed.

The British government offered the Algerians manpower, equipment, and expert assistance to expedite the resolution of the crisis, but was refused.

American, British, and French nationals are thought to be among the dead. In other news, the latest figures from Angola indicate that at least , Chinese nationals have migrated to the country.

The Angolan government says that work permits were issued for the Chinese to assist with development projects.

To see the headlines and the articles, open the full news post. Thanks to Andy Bostom, C. Commenters are advised to leave their comments at this post rather than with the news articles so that they are more easily accessible.

Gates of Vienna cannot vouch for the authenticity or accuracy of the contents of any individual item posted here. We check each entry to make sure it is relatively interesting, not patently offensive, and at least superficially plausible.

Further research and verification are left to the reader. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.

Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from Unzensuriert. The number of pupils with a first language other than German has doubled from to The doubling in the number of multilingual students is evident in virtually all provinces in Austria.

The Styrian province is the only outlier, where the number of children with a different native language has tripled from about 5, to 16, The nationwide statistics conceals the dramatic developments in Vienna, because German is hardly spoken in the primary schools of the federal capital.

For a complete listing of previous enrichment news, see The Cultural Enrichment Archives. Scroll down for other posts that have appeared since Wednesday.

Certain posts at Gates of Vienna, among them those by Takuan Seiyo, tend to attract the attention and comments of people who are preoccupied with the Jews.

I generally delete such comments without publishing them. Before I deleted it, I sent it to Takuan, just to show him what was coming in.

He suggested that I go ahead and post it, followed by his response. Some interesting points, a lot of waffle and some errors. Top class, modern historians now regard that figure as grotesquely disproportionate.

It is one of the most successful internationsal businesses of all time. You have the temerity to post this kind of Nazi apologist garbage in a comments thread of an article by a writer whose gentile grandparents had been murdered in a concentration camp and whose gentile mother spent two years in a labor-extermination camp, was a state witness in the post-war trial of its commandant, and relayed her wartime experiences to this writer directly.

Moreover, a writer who was born and grew up one hour by car from Auschwitz and three kilometers from the plant where the firm Hoch und Tiefbau AG had built the crematoria for that camp.

In which, alone, 2. Moreover, you desecrate the memory of Witold Pilecki plus other Polish officer escapees from Auschwitz who produced written reports, e.

I am omitting here reports by Jewish escapees, for example the Vrba-Wetzler report, as well as the fate of the Jewish part of my family during the war, so as to skirt the whole specious Joooos-tainted-it aspect of your comment.

The lowest for Auschwitz, for instance by the Polish historian Franciszek Piper , cites 1. The highest figure cited for Auschwitz is 4 million.

However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one.

The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments.

For over 60 years, White mea-culpists have had a firm grip in all fields of cultural mind imprinting: Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e.

K and discretionary e. Nor the evils of the worldwide Islamic Inquisition which — not in the 16th century but now, in the 21st, condemns Muslim apostates to barbaric execution.

Instead, aggressive White androphobes of all genders which I can no longer count are decimating the philogynous and egalitarian West.

Equality psychos are tearing down the most egalitarian society that ever existed except for initial communist experiments, before they turned bloody.

American Jews, at the apex of the greatest fortune and philosemitic tolerance their long diaspora has ever bestowed on their kind, are busy supporting all the ideologies and policies that demolish their safe harbor and build up their Muslim, Black and Third World enemies.

Leftoid masochists and the Christian meek call for returning Hawaii to the Hawaiians and capitulating before a massive Mexican reconquista of one-third of America.

The rightful Etruscan landowners are not bearing angry placards in front of the Vatican. The Japanese are not planning to relinquish Hokkaido to its original owners, the Ainu.

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